Friday, September 20, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬â¢ve only ever written to escape from hell-and itÃ¢â¬â¢s never worked-but at the other end of it when you sit there and watch something and think thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the most perfect expression of the hell that I felt then maybe it was worth it. (Sarah Kane, Royal Holloway College, London, 3 November 1998).Ã¢â¬ (Saunders. 2002: 1). Both representative and reflected in this statement made by the British playwright Sarah Kane (1971-1999) (Sierz. 2001: 90-91) is the state of being human. In its literal sense the state of being human could be illustrated as an expression of existence. That of the individual and characteristics and traits experienced through the life of mortal man. (Oxford English Dictionary. 2006: 61 & 366). In addition to this, the associated meaning with the word Ã¢â¬ËtestedÃ¢â¬â¢ suggests Ã¢â¬Ëa difficult situation that reveals the strength or quality of someone or something.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Oxford English Dictionary. 2006: 785). When defined in t hese terms, this then opens up the question to how an expression of human-existence is revealed under pressure in Sarah KaneÃ¢â¬â¢s play Blasted (1995). The twentieth century British playwright Sarah KaneÃ¢â¬â¢s (1971-1999) first and sensational drama Blasted opened in the Royal Court Theatre Upstairs, London, in January 1995. (Saunders. 2002: 2). From the outset KaneÃ¢â¬â¢s play stirred much controversy within the media. The title itself had a great impact upon its audience, as blasted through its formed meaning and literal association is a term Ã¢â¬Ëexpressing annoyance.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Oxford English Dictionary. 2006: 70). As stated by the British theatre critic Aleks Sierz, KaneÃ¢â¬â¢s Blasted is Ã¢â¬Å"a shocking play whose raw language and powerful images of rape, eye-gouging and cannibalism provoked critical outrageÃ¢â¬ ¦Kane exploded theatri... ...tp://www.robertsilverstone.com/wp-content/articles/Art_of_Being_Human_Part1.pdf. [Accessed 21st April 2012] Stephens, S. (2010) Sarah KaneÃ¢â¬â¢s debut play Blasted returns. [On-line] Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/stage/2010/oct/24/sarah-kane-blasted. [Accessed 21st April 2012] The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, (2009) War. [On-line] Available from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/war. [Accessed 21st April 2012] The Guardian, (2005) Ã¢â¬ËSuicide art? SheÃ¢â¬â¢s better than that.Ã¢â¬â¢ [On-line] Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/stage/2005/oct/12/theatre. [Accessed 21st April 2012] Wixson, C. (2005) Ã¢â¬Å"In Better PlacesÃ¢â¬ : Space, Identity, and Alienation in Sarah KaneÃ¢â¬â¢s Blasted. [On-line] Available from: http://muse.jhu.edu.ezproxy.falmouth.ac.uk/journals/comparative_drama/summary/v039/39.1.wixson.html. [Accessed 19th April 2012]
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Leadership and Management are two notions that are often used interchangeably. However, these words actually describe two different concepts. For this paper, I am going to try to discuss these differences and explain why both terms are thought to be similar. Leadership is just one of the many assets a successful manager must possess. Care must be taken in distinguishing between the two concepts. The main aim of a manager is to maximize the output of the organization through administrative implementation. To achieve this, managers must undertake the following functions: Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Organization Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Planning Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Staffing Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Directing Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Controlling Leadership is just one important component of the directing function. A manager cannot just be a leader, he also needs formal authority to be effective. Ã¢â¬Å"For any quality initiative to take hold, senior management must be involved and act as a role model. This involvement cannot be delegatedÃ¢â¬ (Predpall, 30). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In some circumstances, leadership is not required. For example, self-motivated groups may not require a single leader and may find leaders dominating. The fact that a leader is not always required proves that leadership is just an asset and is not essential. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Managers think incrementally, while leaders think radically. Ã¢â¬Å"Managers do things right,... Management and Leadership Essay -- essays research papers Leadership and Management are two notions that are often used interchangeably. However, these words actually describe two different concepts. For this paper, I am going to try to discuss these differences and explain why both terms are thought to be similar. Leadership is just one of the many assets a successful manager must possess. Care must be taken in distinguishing between the two concepts. The main aim of a manager is to maximize the output of the organization through administrative implementation. To achieve this, managers must undertake the following functions: Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Organization Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Planning Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Staffing Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Directing Ã ·Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Controlling Leadership is just one important component of the directing function. A manager cannot just be a leader, he also needs formal authority to be effective. Ã¢â¬Å"For any quality initiative to take hold, senior management must be involved and act as a role model. This involvement cannot be delegatedÃ¢â¬ (Predpall, 30). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In some circumstances, leadership is not required. For example, self-motivated groups may not require a single leader and may find leaders dominating. The fact that a leader is not always required proves that leadership is just an asset and is not essential. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Managers think incrementally, while leaders think radically. Ã¢â¬Å"Managers do things right,...
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
Market economies as ultimately embarked consumer sovereignty as the cornerstone of capitalism; further, bearing moral compasses in a pluralistic society of ethical behaviour. Hence, dictating the normative enactment of corporate social responsibility subsequently undertaken via individual businesses. Consumers under capitalism are, accordingly to ideology, the decision makers on the allocation of societyÃ¢â¬â¢s resources (N. Smith, 1990). Echoing, mere imperatives for companies to articulate their role, scope & purpose in order to maintain their validity, reputation & self worth depends on their ability to understand their place in society (W. Visser, D. Mallen, M. Pohl, N. Tolhurst, page 101). As such, meriting thorough analysis of FirstGroup plc rather compulsion of fulfilling both ethical and corporate social responsibility in an ever evolving societal landscape will be undertaken. FirstGroup plc operates a transportation business model with a wholesome revenue stream of over Ã £6 billion & employs 130 000 staff throughout the UK & North America with a testimonial annual total passenger calculus of 2.5 billion and a justifiable 23% market share (UK bus and rail division). Griseri et al (2010) points out such core stakeholders of the company which are reluctantly vital for the existence and success of the company. These stakeholders form the principal resource base for the company. As FirstGroup maintain and improve their ability to on the resources held via their core stakeholders. In contrast, the second group (depicted above) relates to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive position within the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s particular industry and market. The main challenge for the company with this group of stakeholders is to establish and sustain relati... ...ivil society: emerging embedded relational governance beyond the (neo) liberal and welfare state modelsÃ¢â¬â¢, Journal of Corporate Governance, 5 (3), 159Ã¢â¬â74 Robert W. Kolb (2008), Encyclopedia Of Business Ethics And Society, Vol. 5, page 71 John Henry (2004), Between Enterprise and Ethics-Business and Management in a Bimoral Society, page 111 FirstGroup plc., 2010. Section 3 Ã¢â¬â Employment, . [online] FirstGroup plc Available at: [Accessed 16 December 2010]. Ghoul, S. et al, 2010. Does Corporate Social Responsibility Affect the Cost of Capital?, [online] Available at: [Accessed 2 December 2010]. Heinkel, R., A. Kraus and J. Zechner, 2001, The Effect of Green Investment on Corporate Behavior, Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis 36, 431-449.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Gilligan oOakmont Country Club 1 Thomas W. Gilligan University of Southern California I t is the summer of 1996 and management must decide whether or not to alter the process used to trade the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s 450 memberships. The current fixed price system, in which management sets the transfer fee for club memberships, offers some degree of financial certainty for existing and prospective members as well as for the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s financial planners. However, the fixed price system promotes chronic imbalances between the number of members wishing to leave the club and the number of eligible candidates wanting to enter the club.These imbalances create frustrations for eligible candidates, hardships for long-time club members, difficulties in developing suitable new members and problems for club planners. Management is considering several alternatives. THE CLUB Oakmont Country Club is a private golf and social club located along the Arroyo Verdugo in northern Glendale, California. Establi shed in 1922, Oakmont has long provided the kind of relaxed social life prized by many Southern California families. OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s mission statement reveals the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and orientation. . . to provide its members with a premium golf and country club experience that includes a well maintained, highly respected and competitive golf course; an attractively designed and efficiently operated clubhouse that meets the membershipÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements for excellent service, top-quality food and beverages and ample meeting and banquet facilities; and the maintenance of the ClubÃ¢â¬â¢s unique atmosphere of a strong and friendly family orientation. All contemporary management issues at Oakmont are evaluated through the lens of this mission statement.This case was prepared by Thomas W. Gilligan, University of Southern California, as a basis for classroom discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation.OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s challenging 18-hole, 6,736-yard golf course is a tough test for golfers of any ability. The course was designed by Max Behr, architect of many local courses including the one at Lakeside Country Club, and modified by William Bell, Sr. , creator of courses at the Riviera and Bel Air Country Clubs. OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s course is currently the site of an annual Ladies Professional Golf Association (LPGA) tournament and over the years has hosted many important professional and amateur events. Among the notable winners of golf tournaments held at Oakmont are Ben Hogan and Al Geiberger.OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s clubhouse, which was renovated in 1995, is a 42,000 square foot, single-story structure characterized by an elegant reception area, formal dining room, private meeting and banquet rooms, a memberÃ¢â¬â¢s grill, a casual dining room and a terrace grill for indoor and outdoor eating. In addition, there is a fully equipped state-of-the-art exercise room and menÃ¢â¬â¢s and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s locker rooms. A competitive short course pool, with toddler swimming area, is open from Memorial Day through Labor Day each year. OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s assets are valued at nearly $13 million while its annual operating expenses are more than $3 million.Tables 1 and 2 are statements of the financial position and activities of Oakmont Country Club for fiscal years 1995 and 1996. Oakmont is organized as a non-profit corporation under the laws of the state of California. According to its bylaws, OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s membership is fixed at 450 regular members each with an equal proprietary interest in the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s assets (Oakmont also has several non-equity membership categories). Regular members govern Oakmont through the election of a Board of Directors (the Board), the chief policy-making body of the club. The Board appoints members o standing and special committees and, together with the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s General Manager and senior staff, supervise the daily operations of Oakmont. Regular members also vote on the adoption of new articles or amendments to OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s bylaws.THE MEMBERSHIP PROCESSMost of OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s regular members are professionals, entrepreneurs or corporate leaders who reside in Glendale and the neighboring communities of La Crescenta, La Canada-Flintridge and Pasadena. Some are executives or high-ranking managers in the entertainment industries that permeate the Los Angeles basin.Many current members are children of long-time Oakmont members. Surveys conducted by the club indicate that many members consider other clubs before joining Oakmont. Three nearby clubs Ã¢â¬â Annandale Country Club in Pasadena, San Gabriel Country Club in San Gabriel, and Lakeside Country Club in Burbank Ã¢â¬â compete directly with Oakmont for new members. Indeed, the need to provide competitive club characteristics and amenities was a major motivation for the recent renovation of OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s Clubhouse. Regular members wishing to leave Oakmont do so for a varie ty of reasons.Some have moved or are planning to move to locations that would limit or preclude their use of Oakmont. Others wish to give up their golfing privileges but continue their association with Oakmont as social members. Some find that due to changing life circumstances (e. g. , the death of a spouse), their club usage has declined and it is no longer sensible to continue to pay the monthly membership dues, which can approach $500 even with little or no use of the club. And some are no longer economically able to cover the cost of membership. Historically, roughly two members leave the club each month.The process of becoming a member at Oakmont is typical of private country and social clubs in Southern California. Prospective members are invited to join Oakmont by two current members (a Ã¢â¬Å"proposerÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"seconderÃ¢â¬ ) and endorsed by five additional regular members. These prospects are then interviewed by the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s Membership Committee and evaluate d by the Board.Eligible candidates become members of Oakmont by remitting an entrance fee to the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s business office. Part of the entrance fee, the transfer fee, is used to defray the current expenses of the club. Table 2 illustrates that the transfer fee is an important revenue source, constituting roughly 14 and 19 percent of the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s operating revenues in 1996 and 1995, respectively. The balance of the entrance fee, the memberÃ¢â¬â¢s equity, is paid to the resigning member. Currently, the entrance fee, transfer fee and memberÃ¢â¬â¢s equity are set by OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s Board.This so-called fixed price membership system is typical of social and country clubs like Oakmont and has several desirable features. The fixed price system allows the Board to reliably budget transfer fees. The fixed price system also appears to provide some certainty about the costs of joining Oakmont to prospective members and the value of memberÃ¢â¬â¢s equity for members planning to resign. Since the fee structure adopted under the fixed price system is at the discretion of the Board, it permits some flexibility in adjusting to relevant changing circumstances.For example, the vicissitudes of the Southern California economy have a large bearing on the number of members wishing to resign from or join Oakmont. During the economic boom of the late 1980s and prior to the recession of the early 1990s, the Board increased the entrance fee by almost 50 percent (from $34,000 in May 1989 to $50,000 in March 1992). After the recession of the early 1990s, the Board reduced the entrance fee by nearly a quarter (from $50,000 in March 1992 to $39,000 in June 1993).Changes in the entrance fee also reflect the financial requirements of construction or acquisition of new assets. Also in June 1993, the Board increased the entrance fee by $6,700, an amount equal to the assessment levied on all current Oakmont members to cover the costs of the Clubhouse renovation (note that the ol d entrance fee plus assessment yields the new entrance fee of $45,700). Table 3 reports the entrance fee, transfer fee, and memberÃ¢â¬â¢s equity for October of each year from 1989 to 1995, as well as for August of 1996.THE PROBLEMSThe fixed price membership system used at Oakmont is associated with at least one potentially undesirable feature; a chronic imbalance between the number of members wishing to resign and the number of eligible candidates wishing to join the club. The last column of Table 3 reports the number of people waiting to join (in parenthesis) or resign from Oakmont for several months during the 1989 to 1996 period. In October of 1991, there were 11 eligible candidates for membership to the club who, due to the paucity of members wishing to resign, remained eligible candidates for at least one month.Inspection of Table 3 indicates that the number of eligible candidates waiting to join Oakmont at the end of October of 1990 and 1989 was even greater; 42 and 27, resp ectively. Indeed, some members who paid OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s highest historical entrance fee late in 1991 or early in 1992 had waited over two years to join the club. A long waiting list of eligible candidates wishing to enter Oakmont had its good and bad points. Some members viewed a long queue of eligible candidates as indicative of the value and exclusivity of the club.After all, it is traditionally difficult to get into a desirable social club; why should Oakmont be any different? Others, however, were troubled by the impact of this lengthy wait on eligible candidates. All of the eligible candidates had been asked to join by current Oakmont members. Many of these members were embarrassed and frustrated by the lengthy wait that accompanied their invitations. In addition, some felt that the long waiting list to enter Oakmont generated Ã¢â¬Å"speculativeÃ¢â¬ eligible members; individuals that declined to exercise their option to become a member when they reached the top of the list. While these two membership categories addressed some of the problems associated with the long waiting list to join Oakmont, they also created some new issues and abuses, as well. During 1992, the imbalance between the number of members wishing to resign or join Oakmont continued unabated.Paradoxically, the relationship that existed during the late 1980s and early 1990s reversed itself; there were now more members wishing to resign than to join. The factors behind this new trend were evident. The weakening national and, especially, Southern California economy shrank the number of individuals with the discretionary income necessary to belong to a country club. Changes in the tax law in the early 1990s that reduced allowable deductions for club dues and entertainment further limited the number of prospective members.Moreover, the average age of Oakmont members, a good predictor of the number of members wishing to resign, had increased from 55 years in 1971 to 62 years in 1996. As Table 3 reports, at the end of October of 1992 there were 10 members who wished to leave Oakmont but could not because there were no eligible candidates waiting to enter. By the end of August of 1996, this number was now 41 and the member at the top of the list to sell his membership had waited since June of 1994. Club management soon discovered that there is nothing good about a long list of members waiting to leave Oakmont.By the second half of 1994, those waiting to leave were quite bitter. These resigning members had endured the physical disruptions of the Clubhouse renovation, which still had a year to go and was at the time 50 percent over budget. The resigning members who had left the area thought it unfair that they be required to continue to pay monthly dues. Management tried to accommodate these individuals by establishing another membership category Ã¢â¬â inactive member Ã¢â¬â with reduced monthly fees in exchange for the surrender of club privileges.This plan placated f ew resigning members. And the general negativity of the current situation accelerated the number of members wishing to resign and diminished further still the number of prospective members wishing to enter Oakmont. Indeed, during several months in 1994 and 1995, few prospective members made inquiries and no eligible members were admitted to the club. Ironically, by the middle of 1996 the national and regional economy had recovered with a vengeance. Real estate prices, the stock market, and national and regional employment were all rising dramatically.The Clubhouse renovation had been completed and, by all accounts, greatly increased the utility and desirability of Oakmont. Yet, the number of members wishing to resign from Oakmont continued to accumulate. All of the long-term fundamentals for a strong and popular club were now in place. Where were the prospective members that a modern club and healthy economy and stock market should help create? Could the allure of country club livin g have declined in contemporary Southern California? Or might savvy prospective members have anticipated a better deal around the corner?THE ALTERNATIVESDuring 1996 the Board contemplated possible solutions to the membership problem. One possibility was to promote the club more effectively among prospective members. In the 1990s the Board had adopted a variety of plans to generate eligible candidates, such as offering existing members prizes for successful referrals (e. g. , vacations to Hawaii, free dues for three months). These plans had been judged to be only moderately successful and created a backlash among members who felt that such promotions were in poor taste and counter to the ClubÃ¢â¬â¢s recruitment goals.Some current members felt that new members should be those who fit well within the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s niche, not those simply financially able to be Oakmont members. The renovation of CaseNetÃ ® Ã ©South-Western College Publishing Oakmont Country Club 5 the Clubhouse help ed generate new members, as well. Following its completion there was an initial surge of interest. Some Board members felt that an aggressive promotional plan coupled with some minor improvements in the ClubÃ¢â¬â¢s physical plant (e. . , the pool) would go far towards alleviating the membership imbalance. Many of these same Board members believed that the strengthening economy would naturally solve the current problem. Another alternative the Board considered was to reduce the entrance fee, as was done in 1992. This simple solution, which was favored by some of the BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s members, was consistent with the long-time practices of the club and would require few if any changes to the administrative procedures governing the membership process.Other Board members felt that it was unfair to members wishing to leave the club to force them to sell their memberships at a discounted fixed price. And even if the Board reduced the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s entrance fee, what should the new fee be? Should the fee be set to generate a waiting list of eligible members, as had existed prior to 1991? If so, what was the right length waiting list? Some Board members felt that, under the current circumstances, any change in the entrance fee would have to be modified in the near future and, depending on the volatility of several factors, on a periodic basis.A third alternative considered by the Board was to abandon the fixed price membership system altogether and adopt the so-called float method to determine the entrance fee, transfer fee and memberÃ¢â¬â¢s equity of Oakmont memberships. This method had been adopted at some neighboring clubs (e. g. , San Gabriel Country Club and Lakeside Country Club) with varying success. Generally, the float method permits the entrance fee to change monthly as a function of the number of members wishing to enter and leave the club and the value that these members place on membership in Oakmont.Board members who favored the float method felt it wou ld alleviate the imbalance between the number of individuals wishing to leave and enter Oakmont. They also felt that the float method would get club management out of the business of trying to guess the value of club memberships and addressing, on an ad hoc basis, the problems that might arise from lengthy waiting lists to enter or leave the club. Some Board members opposed the plan because they felt it would interject uncertainty in budgeting for transfer fee income.Others opposed the plan because they felt that membership in Oakmont was not like a piece of real estate to be transacted on the open market. These members felt memberships should be allocated by the Board, with consultation from the Membership Committee, to prospective members who would help further OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s values and mission.THE DECISIONIn late September of 1996, the Board abandoned the fixed price membership system and adopted a float method to determine the entrance fee, transfer fee, and memberÃ¢â¬â¢s eq uity of Oakmont memberships.Under the float method, a resigning member offers to sell his membership at any price he wishes. At the end of each month the Board presents these offers, from lowest to highest, to eligible candidates. Priority is given to eligible candidates based on the submission date of their membership application. If an eligible candidate accepts the offer, the candidate remits a check in the amount of the offer to OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s business office. The transfer fee is half of the offer price or $15,000, whichever is greater, with the remainder constituting the resigning memberÃ¢â¬â¢s equity.If an eligible candidate declines the offer, he assumes the lowest priority in the following monthÃ¢â¬â¢s membership sale. A candidate can decline three offers before losing his eligibility. The highest selling price, the number of memberships transacted, and the number of remaining eligible candidates is reported each month to Oakmont members, eligible candidates and prospe ctive members.Smith and Mr. Jones, both long-time Oakmont members, submit offers to sell at $35,000 and $40,000, respectively. Currently, Mr. Brown, Mr. Black and Mr. White are the only eligible candidates. Based on the timing of their membership applications, an offer will be presented first to Mr. Brown, then to Mr. Black, and finally to Mr. White. The Board presents Mr. SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s $35,000 offer to Mr. Brown. Since Mr. Brown declines the offer, he is placed on the bottom of next monthÃ¢â¬â¢s eligible candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s list and Mr. Black is presented with Mr.SmithÃ¢â¬â¢s offer. Mr. Black accepts, remitting a check for $35,000 to Oakmont, $17,500 of which goes to the operating budget of the club as transfer fee and $17,500 of which goes to Mr. Smith as memberÃ¢â¬â¢s equity. Mr. JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ $40,000 offer is now presented to Mr. White, who declines and goes to the bottom of next monthÃ¢â¬â¢s eligible candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s list behind Mr. Brown. Mr. JonesÃ¢â¬â¢ $40,000 of fer stands unless he advises the Board that he wishes to either withdraw or alter his offer. The Board would report that one membership changed hands at $35,000.If more than one membership had been traded, the Board would report the highest price only. Table 1 reports the monthly history of the float method at Oakmont Country Club from October of 1996 through January of 1999. This table catalogs the number of members waiting to sell their membership, the number making offers to sell, the number of offers accepted by eligible candidates, and the highest selling price. In OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s 1997 Annual Report, President Charles J. Gelhaar offered the following summary. The success of our Ã¢â¬Å"floatÃ¢â¬ process continued in 1997.Our waiting-out list has [been] reduced from 43 to 0. We sold 34 regular [memberships]. The last membership sold for $57,750. OakmontÃ¢â¬â¢s President in 1998, David A. Werbelow, provided the following assessment. [The] Membership Committee continued the p ositive turnaround which began in . . . October, 1996, with the introduction of the Ã¢â¬Å"floatÃ¢â¬ system. This year, every offer to sell was accepted by a buying new member Ã¢â¬â the 1998 average selling price of just over $60,000 was $12,000 higher than the average of the prior year.The average age of incoming members is more than 20 years younger than retiring members, and Oakmont Country Club has firmly established a niche in Southern California as a family club. The History of Oakmont Country Club, published on the clubÃ¢â¬â¢s 75 th Anniversary in 1997, provides a more theatrical description of the events surrounding the adoption of the float method. . . . it was now time to tackle another pressing problem: the membership. The recession that damaged Southern California had impacted Oakmont as well. The average age of golf members had climbed to 61, and there were some 40 members waiting to get out.Unfortunately, new members were coming in at a snailÃ¢â¬â¢s pace. At one point, only one new member applied in a three-month period. Spearheaded by 1996 Club President Olaf Falkenhagen, the idea of a floating membership fee was implemented in October, 1996. Other clubs in the area had tried it with varying success; and after considerable debate at the Board level, it was time for Oakmont to try it. It was an instant success. Five new members applied immediately. Thirty five members applied in six months.A high of $60,000 was reached in May, 1997, and a waiting list to join seems a real possibility for the first time in years. The float method developed at Oakmont, referred to as the Oakmont Float, is now used by a variety of equity-based golf and social clubs in the Southern California and Las Vegas areas.
Monday, September 16, 2019
The objectives for are derived from the mission statement together with our company aim to provide our clients and their customers with the most flexible and effective customer relations services and protecting the relationship between a recognizable brand name and the customers that are served. The mission statement clearly outlines what is important to our clients, their customers and lastly what is most important to LLC. A satisfied customer is paramount to the success of our clients. This objective is only achieved by the professionalism, caring and the understanding by the call center agents that we are the first line of customer interaction that represents the client company. Our position in the process must leave a desirable first impression upon the client customers. Our management team grasp of a body of knowledge pertaining to the call center industry will continue to nurture a work-force that is being primed to provide impeccable customer relations services to an expanded field consisting of retailers in every industry of service. The role of the call center is growing in the service industry. Our vision statement recognizes the position of call centers as technological advances are made to deliver superb customer service relations. Technology will be the deciding factor in achieving objectives. The larger customer relations firms are poised to continue out-sourcing their services which leaves a void for customer service relations opportunities in the United States. Our vision to continue to grow our work-at-home program is a strategic measure and a competitive advantage that we feel will continue to set us apart from the competition. The overall logistics of the work-at-home program must be modified to ensure the success of the candidates that desire to service client customers from home. This program is a key objective to future growth for our organization. The vision demands continual training and innovation that will formulate an already client and customer friendly service to a business model that will expand to other areas of retail industries. The SWOTT analysis showed strength in the areas of intellectual property and a business model that has a focus on work-at-home moms. These two objectives will be the driving force that will allow LLC to strengthen the profitability, efficiency and productivity of our clients. There is also an expectation for an increase in market share which will provide added incentives to our employees and management team. A key component of the SWOTT analysis is in the technological design of the latest equipment that will set the precedent moving forward for the industry. The knowledge that is required to implement the newer systems has always been an advantage for our management team. Any threats from competitors will be thwarted by the increase in market share and the ability to implement and provide training for the newer systems which will be done in-house. Any strategic advantage that can be attained must be sustained. The SWOTT analysis can not be over emphasized nor should it be downplay the threats to an organization. It has been utilized as a tool that will give our organization the best internal analysis that shows what is possible internally in light of the external factors.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
He asked the question in such surprise and disgust, the author has been very extreme in many every day situations that we would think ordinary, another example is, Ã¢â¬ËMartha my wife. I have waked at night many a time and found her in a corner, reading a book. Now what do you make of thatÃ¢â¬â¢ this tells us how the people of Salem cry witchcraft at anyone different, that something so ordinary to us may be deemed evil to another. Arthur Miller shows us how different there morals lie and this in turn contributes to our understanding of how Abigail lets things spiral so far out of control. When realizing the cultural difference and conversely the vast similarities that, though sometimes unnoticed, effected both the McCarthy trials and correspondingly us today; it makes the reader draw detections from there own lives and feel empathy for the characters and there unfortunate circumstances. The puritan rules add to the hysteria, as it makes simple life choices so dramatic, Marriage is a main pillar of the puritan lifestyle an example of how marriage becomes more imperative is shows this is the name Ã¢â¬ËgoodyÃ¢â¬â¢ this is the name given to puritans who are married. This shows us that to puritans class married women above others. In puritan realign one is not considered an adult until they are married, this also puts pressure on children to find a husband, this status is shown in an argument between john Procter and Marry Warren Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ll whip the devil out of youÃ¢â¬ ¦ go to bedÃ¢â¬â¢ -Ã¢â¬ËIÃ¢â¬â¢ll not be ordered to bed any more, Mr. Procter! I am eighteen and a woman, however singleÃ¢â¬â¢. Marry Warren is generally a timid charter but she wants to be classed as a women despite the fact she is not married and because of that she is forced to speak out. This quote shows that a The whole of the puritan lifestyle in focused on marriage and church, both of which Abigail is tampering with, and to understand part of the reason as to why the people of Salem were so distort over whelmed and bewildered at how to cope with the accusation of witchcraft is that puritan people live a sheltered life restricted by the enforcers of there realign. An example of this is Ã¢â¬Ëuncle we did danceÃ¢â¬ ¦ IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be whipped if I mustÃ¢â¬â¢ to our modern day society and people in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s this would seem outrageous and over barring that they want to control your life, but author miller is drawing links between capitalism and Puritanism, both trying to control peoples idea and way of life. It proves that the majority of people believe in what there told by there elected authority, capitalists say communism is bad; they then go round destroying the lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s of those who challenge them. In Salem they say all you must have in your life is church and marriage people that try a devoid from their rules e. g.Ã supposed whichÃ¢â¬â¢s, were prosecuted and eventually killed. But there comes a point where a person must stand up for what is clearly and ethically wrong, in the McCarthy trial it was Arthur miller through writing this play, and in Slam it was john Procter, the protagonist in this tragedy, the main character, author millers own creation. The author perceptively wrote AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s fictional self based on that of a real person, whose identity adds to the depth of the character; a young girl named Abigail Williams, aged 10 in the McCarthy trials was Arthur Millers foundation for the fictional character that was later formed. At first the most noticeable feature is there difference in age however when looking at the fictional Abigail Williams immaturity insinuates this make them more similar than first perceived this is shown in the quote Ã¢â¬Ë[with a flash of anger]: How do you call me childÃ¢â¬â¢ this shows her irrational unstable emotions and insecurities and as a result her actions make her seemingly more childlike as she seems to be oblivious to the damage she causes throughout Salem. This is also displayed in the way she talks to her friends an example is in the quote Ã¢â¬ËI say shut it, Marry Warren! Ã¢â¬Ë this demonstrate how immaturely and impatiently she deals with people. Another example is though the way she talks to the reverend about others Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a bitter woman, a lying, cold sniveling womanÃ¢â¬ ¦ Goody Proctor is a gossiping liar! Ã¢â¬ she is talking to her uncle a senior and supposedly respected family member refer more a man of highest authority within Salem. Yet despite this fact she is still rude, unforgiving and disrespectful whilst in the presence of a man of the church Abigail doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t refer to her as a person with feelings rather uses the words, Ã¢â¬ËitÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëwoman. Moreover she uses lying, cold and sniveling, three descriptive words to emphasize her point, this repetitive technique is a demonstration of how grammar and techniques like this contribute to her subtle yet calculated persuasion. Finally even the grand judge of the court Danforth, Ã¢â¬Ëif you make me answer that question I shall leave and never come back! Ã¢â¬Ë this show that even when the truth is shown she is so stubborn that she will deny it until she is blue in face, even when she is about to be proved wrong she stands her ground as she cannot handle anyone challenging her self authority like a child having a temper tantrum. Abigail is determined in her will to acquire john Procter so much so she comes across as spoilt and stubborn. This is shown in the quote Ã¢â¬Ëyou love me John Procter an what ever sin it is you love me yetÃ¢â¬â¢ This childlike character trait is very important as her stubborn and irrational ideas are what drive her to continue accusing witches. AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s sharp mind helps her convincing overpower the people around her. The other girls look up to Abby, she is always sure in herself Ã¢â¬Ëinsert quoteÃ¢â¬â¢ this makes them idolize her and consequently this prompts the girls do what she wants, an example of this is said by one of the girls Marry Warren Ã¢â¬ËwhatÃ¢â¬â¢ll we do? The whole countryÃ¢â¬â¢s talking witchcraft! TheyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be calling us witches AbbyÃ¢â¬â¢ this show that they confide an trust her, she uses Abigail informal name Ã¢â¬ËAbbyÃ¢â¬â¢ this suggest she sees Abigail as a friend, this is supported as they turn to her for advice as she seems more mature, but her scheming mind uses this admiration to force them to do as she demands. Her controlling nature is also apparent in the quote Ã¢â¬ËBetty? Now Betty dear wake up now. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s Abigail. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll beat you Betty! Ã¢â¬ ¦ My you seem to be improvingÃ¢â¬â¢ sheÃ¢â¬â¢s uses a rage of different devices to suit the target audience, in this case Betty is a small child, and so she playÃ¢â¬â¢s on her dependence on Abigail, by instilling fear this is done through using changes in approach such as variations of tone at first gentle then angry and then comforting, she even resorts to threats till she gets her to talk, she takes the audience through emotional ride with unexpected twists this makes her good not just as a fascinating character but as a device on stage. Secondly innocent people within the village, Ã¢â¬ËI wrote in his book; I go back to Jesus; I kiss his hand. I saw Sarah good with e the devil! I saw goody Osborn with the devil! I saw Bridget bishop with the devil! Ã¢â¬Ë this also shows she has no remorse as she continually accuses and as a results has them killed. Thirdly Abigail is clever this adds to her manipulation she works out how to get around people, a quote which shows this is, Ã¢â¬Ëwe dancedÃ¢â¬ ¦ that is allÃ¢â¬ ¦ breathe a word about the other things, and I will come to you in the black of some terrible night andÃ¢â¬â¢ however although Abigail sees her self in a higher status to the other girls and as such comfortable in making them experience weakness so they feel reliance upon her. Arthur miller wrote Ã¢â¬Ëthe CrucibleÃ¢â¬â¢ as a Tragedy this adds to the drama created by the charters, as we know they are destined for a disastrous and untimely end. The author has included typical themes used in a tragedy. Firstly he is describing the downfall of a great man in this case john Procter. What makes him grate is that he is the only person that sees through the high courts for what they really are however he gave in to temptation Ã¢â¬Ëinsert quote about john sleeping with AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢ this quote tells us his hubris, his weakness it was that he lusted after Abigail and committed adultery. She is his weakness an as such is a hamartia, the person that causes the downfall of the protagonist. AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s importance as a hamartia is so vital to the play, so much if she hadnÃ¢â¬â¢t of slept with john, the chain of events that led to his death and the many others in the witch trials, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have happened. Consequently itÃ¢â¬â¢s AbigailÃ¢â¬â¢s lust for john that causes her to go to the woods, that starts the witchcraft suspicions that Abigail uses to her vindictive advantage. The start of the Salem witch trial was initiation by Abigail Williams, with the soul purpose of accusing Elizabeth and gets her killed. She did this because she is assumed with love for john and wants to believe her feelings arenÃ¢â¬â¢t unrequited, Ã¢â¬Ëgive me a word, john. A soft word. Ã¢â¬Ë (Her concentrated smile and desire destroys his smile)Ã¢â¬â¢ the remembrance of the affair makes john uncomfortable and unhappy, this shows that where as Abigail is still hopeful, shown through Ã¢â¬Ëconcentrated desireÃ¢â¬â¢ those words show us how unrelenting her love is, she is desperately searching for some reassurance that her feelings are not unrequited. However Abigail says Ã¢â¬Ëyou loved me, john proctor, and whatever sin it is, you love me yet! Ã¢â¬Ë this shows us how insecure she is, that she tries to convince someone to love her, and by saying it out loud sheÃ¢â¬â¢s almost trying to convince herself. This unrequited love makes us feel sorry for Abigail as sheÃ¢â¬â¢s desperately trying to make excuses for him. In his quote she says loving her is a sin, this is an important in the puritan lives, as they are meant live for god. If she is a sin it is understandable that he does not show his feelings for her.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
First Century Corinth The Epistles to the Corinthians were written by the apostle Paul in the mid 50Ã¢â¬â¢s A. D. These were letters written to a church community that, according to the book of Acts, Paul had a hand in founding on an earlier journey (Acts 18:9). The epistles themselves speak much about the cultural, economic, and spiritual significance of this very heavily Roman influenced Greek city located on the Isthmus of Corinth. By examining the epistles and further historical source, the context and importance of first century Corinth will be explored. The city of Corinth as it is in the first century A. D. as founded as a Roman colony in 44 B. C. by the Emperor Julius Caesar. In just one century since itÃ¢â¬â¢s re-founding, Corinth had become a very cosmopolitan city through its strategic location that was conducive for trade, its large and very multicultural population, and the favor it had in the region as a colony of the mighty Roman Empire. When Corinth was resettled, the Roman Empire populated it with a diverse cross section of the cultures contained within the empire at the time. Italians and Greeks would be the primary colonists along with Hellenized Jews, but also among the settlers were freed Judean slaves and other middle-easterners. Morris 18) This made for a melting pot of traditions, customs, and beliefs. And in conjunction with the economic promise of the city, this relative freedom and safety produced some interesting problems for the spiritual life of the Corinthian church that Paul was out to address in his epistles. Corinth was located strategically on an isthmus that happened to be nearly equidistant between GreeceÃ¢â¬â¢s other two major cities in the region, Sparta and Athens. In a stretch of less than five miles, this area contained a port on each side of the isthmus.The eastern port had easily defended water access toward Asia Minor, south to northern Africa, and to the rest of the Mediterranean. The crucial port on the west of the isthmus had access to the Italian peninsula, the heart of the Roman Empire, and further west. (Constable) Even before the refounding of the city and the Hellenistic period, a paved trackway was constructed that allowed for cargo to be transported by dry land to the other side. (The location of first century Corinth added to its prominence in the Roman Empire, added to its wealth, and attracted people from all over the empire.Paul states in 1 Corinthians 1:26 that, Ã¢â¬Å"not many were powerful, not many were of noble birth. Ã¢â¬ So it can be said that the majority of the church in Corinth was not of the upper class, although it is likely there are plenty of important figures in the citiesÃ¢â¬â¢ life that could be members of the church in Corinth. (Jongkind 139) In the book of Romans, also written by Paul (most probably written during his stay in Corinth), he mentions two likely wealthy people: Gaius, PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s host, and Erastus, the treasurer of the city (Romans 16:2 3). Morris 21) Also, within the book of Acts, it is recorded that upon hearing Paul, many believed and were baptized, including Crispus, the ruler of the synagogue (Acts 18:8). The diversity within the city was likely well represented in the demographics of the church. This diversity was deeper than just economic status. Within the city were members of the Imperial Cult, Jews, adherents to the philosophies of the day, and worshippers of the Greco/Roman gods, most predominantly Aphrodite.This caused many tensions for Paul to address, like issues regarding food that had been sacrificed to idols (1 Corinthians 8), and unity and equality based in faith and not in social status (2 Corinthians 8). First Century Corinth was not unlike the New York City of today, diverse, esteemed, wealthy, and alive. Works Cited Constable, Thomas. Ã¢â¬Å"Notes on 1 Corinthians: Historical Background. Ã¢â¬ SonicLight. com. Web. 2012. Elwell, W. A. , & Beitzel, B. J. 1988. Baker encyclopedia of the Bible. Baker Book House: Grand Rapids, MI Freedman, David Noel, Allen C. Myers, and Astrid B. Beck. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible.Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2000. Garland, D. E. 2003. 1 Corinthians. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Baker Academic: Grand Rapids, MI Jongkind, Dirk. Ã¢â¬Å"Corinth in the First Century AD: the search for another class. Ã¢â¬ Tyndale Bulletin. 2001: 139-148. Print. Kistemaker, S. J. , & Hendriksen, W. 1953-2001. Vol. 18: Exposition of the First Epistle to the Corinthians. New Testament Commentary. Baker Book House: Grand Rapids Morris, Leon. The First epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: an introduction and commentary. Leicester, England Grand Rapids, Mich: Inter-Varsity Press Eerdmans, 1983