Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Lyme Disease Lyme Arthritis ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Lyme Disease Is A Tick-tran

Lyme Disease Lyme Arthritis ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted inflammatory disorder characterized by an early focal skin lesion, and subsequently a growing red area on the skin (erythema chronicum migrans or ECM). The disorder may be followed weeks later by neurological, heart or joint abnormalities. Symptomatology ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The first symptom of Lyme disease is a skin lesion. Known as erythema chronicum migrans, or ECM, this usually begins as a red discoloration (macule) or as an elevated round spot (papule). The skin lesion usually appears on an extremity or on the trunk, especially the thigh, buttock or the under arm. This spot expands, often with central clearing, to a diameter as large as 50 cm (c. 12 in.). Approximately 25% of patients with Lyme disease report having been bitten at that site by a tiny tick 3 to 32 days before onset of ECM. The lesion may be warm to touch. Soon after onset nearly half the patients develop multiple smaller lesions without hardened centers. ECM generally lasts for a few weeks. Other types of lesions may subsequently appear during resolution. Former skin lesions may reappear faintly, sometimes before recurrent attacks of arthritis. Lesions of the mucous membranes do not occur in Lyme disease. The most common symptoms accompanying ECM, or preceding it by a few days, may include malaise, fatigue, chills, fever, headache and stiff neck. Less commonly, backache, muscle aches (myalgias), nausea, vomiting, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, and an enlarged spleen may also be present. Most symptoms are characteristically intermittent and changing, but malaise and fatigue may linger for weeks. Arthritis is present in about half of the patients with ECM, occurring within weeks to months following onset and lasting as long as 2 years. Early in the illness, migratory inflammation of ma ny joints (polyarthritis) without joint swelling may occur. Later, longer attacks of swelling and pain in several large joints, especially the knees, typically recur for several years. The knees commonly are much more swollen than painful; they are often hot, but rarely red. Baker's cysts (a cyst in the knee) may form and rupture. Those symptoms accompanying ECM, especially malaise, fatigue and low-grade fever, may also precede or accompany recurrent attacks of arthritis. About 10% of patients develop chronic knee involvement (i.e. unremittent for 6 months or longer). Neurological abnormalities may develop in about 15% of patients with Lyme disease within weeks to months following onset of ECM, often before arthritis occurs. These abnormalities commonly last for months, and usually resolve completely. They include: 1. lymphocytic meningitis or meningoencephalitis 2. jerky involuntary movements (chorea) 3. failure of muscle coordination due to dysfunction of the cerebellum (cerebellar ataxia) 4. cranial neuritis including Bell's palsy (a form of facial paralysis) 5. motor and sensory radiculo-neuritis (symmetric weakness, pain, strange sensations in the extremities, usually occurring first in the legs) 6. injury to single nerves causing diminished nerve response (mononeuritis multiplex) 7. inflammation of the spinal cord (myelitis). Abnormalities in the heart muscle (myocardium) occur in approximately 8% of patients with Lyme disease within weeks of ECM. They may include fluctuating degrees of atrioventricular block and, less commonly, inflammation of the heart sack and heart muscle (myopericarditis) with reduced blood volume ejected from the left ventricle and an enlarged heart (cardiomegaly). When Lyme Disease is contracted during pregnancy, the fetus may or may not be adversely affected, or may contract congenital Lyme Disease. In a study of nineteen pregnant women with Lyme Disease, fourteen had normal pregnancies and normal babies. If Lyme Disease is contracted during pregnancy, possible fetal abnormalities and premature birth can occur. Etiology ~~~~~~~~ Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete bacterium (Borrelia Burgdorferi) transmitted by a small tick called Ixodes dammini. The spirochete is probably injected into the victim's skin or bloodstream at the time of the insect bite. After an incubation period of 3 to 32 days, the organism migrates outward in the skin, is spread through the lymphatic system or is disseminated by the blood to different body organs or other skin sites. Lyme Disease was first described in 1909 in European medical journals. The first outbreak in the United States occurred in the early 1970's in Old lyme, Connecticut. An unusually high Lyme Disease Lyme Arthritis ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Lyme Disease Is A Tick-tran Lyme Disease Lyme Arthritis ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Lyme disease is a tick-transmitted inflammatory disorder characterized by an early focal skin lesion, and subsequently a growing red area on the skin (erythema chronicum migrans or ECM). The disorder may be followed weeks later by neurological, heart or joint abnormalities. Symptomatology ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ The first symptom of Lyme disease is a skin lesion. Known as erythema chronicum migrans, or ECM, this usually begins as a red discoloration (macule) or as an elevated round spot (papule). The skin lesion usually appears on an extremity or on the trunk, especially the thigh, buttock or the under arm. This spot expands, often with central clearing, to a diameter as large as 50 cm (c. 12 in.). Approximately 25% of patients with Lyme disease report having been bitten at that site by a tiny tick 3 to 32 days before onset of ECM. The lesion may be warm to touch. Soon after onset nearly half the patients develop multiple smaller lesions without hardened centers. ECM generally lasts for a few weeks. Other types of lesions may subsequently appear during resolution. Former skin lesions may reappear faintly, sometimes before recurrent attacks of arthritis. Lesions of the mucous membranes do not occur in Lyme disease. The most common symptoms accompanying ECM, or preceding it by a few days, may include malaise, fatigue, chills, fever, headache and stiff neck. Less commonly, backache, muscle aches (myalgias), nausea, vomiting, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, and an enlarged spleen may also be present. Most symptoms are characteristically intermittent and changing, but malaise and fatigue may linger for weeks. Arthritis is present in about half of the patients with ECM, occurring within weeks to months following onset and lasting as long as 2 years. Early in the illness, migratory inflammation of ma ny joints (polyarthritis) without joint swelling may occur. Later, longer attacks of swelling and pain in several large joints, especially the knees, typically recur for several years. The knees commonly are much more swollen than painful; they are often hot, but rarely red. Baker's cysts (a cyst in the knee) may form and rupture. Those symptoms accompanying ECM, especially malaise, fatigue and low-grade fever, may also precede or accompany recurrent attacks of arthritis. About 10% of patients develop chronic knee involvement (i.e. unremittent for 6 months or longer). Neurological abnormalities may develop in about 15% of patients with Lyme disease within weeks to months following onset of ECM, often before arthritis occurs. These abnormalities commonly last for months, and usually resolve completely. They include: 1. lymphocytic meningitis or meningoencephalitis 2. jerky involuntary movements (chorea) 3. failure of muscle coordination due to dysfunction of the cerebellum (cerebellar ataxia) 4. cranial neuritis including Bell's palsy (a form of facial paralysis) 5. motor and sensory radiculo-neuritis (symmetric weakness, pain, strange sensations in the extremities, usually occurring first in the legs) 6. injury to single nerves causing diminished nerve response (mononeuritis multiplex) 7. inflammation of the spinal cord (myelitis). Abnormalities in the heart muscle (myocardium) occur in approximately 8% of patients with Lyme disease within weeks of ECM. They may include fluctuating degrees of atrioventricular block and, less commonly, inflammation of the heart sack and heart muscle (myopericarditis) with reduced blood volume ejected from the left ventricle and an enlarged heart (cardiomegaly). When Lyme Disease is contracted during pregnancy, the fetus may or may not be adversely affected, or may contract congenital Lyme Disease. In a study of nineteen pregnant women with Lyme Disease, fourteen had normal pregnancies and normal babies. If Lyme Disease is contracted during pregnancy, possible fetal abnormalities and premature birth can occur. Etiology ~~~~~~~~ Lyme disease is caused by a spirochete bacterium (Borrelia Burgdorferi) transmitted by a small tick called Ixodes dammini. The spirochete is probably injected into the victim's skin or bloodstream at the time of the insect bite. After an incubation period of 3 to 32 days, the organism migrates outward in the skin, is spread through the lymphatic system or is disseminated by the blood to different body organs or other skin sites. Lyme Disease was first described in 1909 in European medical journals. The first outbreak in the United States occurred in the early 1970's in Old lyme, Connecticut. An unusually high

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Martin Luther Essays (1160 words) - Lutheran Theology,

Martin Luther Martin Luther Martin Luther lived from 1483-1546. Luther was born on November 10, 1483 in Eisleben in the province of Saxony. His protestant view of Christianity started what was called the Protestant Reformation in Germany. Luther's intentions were to reform the medieval Roman Catholic Church. But firm resistance from the church towards Luther's challenge made way to a permanent division in the structure of Western Christianity. Luther lived in Mansfield and was the son of a miner. He later went on to study at Eisenbach and Magdeburg. After studying at these institutions he moved on to study at the University of Erfurt. Luther started out studying law, but then went on to enter the religious life. He went into the religious life due to the fact that he felt that he would never earn his eternal salvation. He didn't feel that all of the prayer, studying and sacraments were enough. Therefore, Luther felt that he would never be able to satisfy such a judging God. Not being able to satisfy this God meant eternal damnation. After entering the religious life he later became an Augustinian monk and entered the Augustinian monastery at Erfurt in July of 1505. While in this monastery Luther became a well known theologian and Biblical scholar. In 1512 Luther earned his doctorate in theology and became a professor of Biblical literature at Wittenberg University. Luther took his religious vocation very serious. This led him into a severe crisis in dealing with his religion. He wondered, "is it possible to reconcile the demands of God's law with human inability to live up to the law." Luther then turned to the New Testament book of Romans for answers. He had found, "God had, in the obedience of Jesus Christ, reconciled humanity to himself." "What was required of mankind, therefore, was not strict adherence to law or the fulfillment of religious obligations, but a response of faith that accepted what God had done." In other words he realized that religion is based on love and not fear. Basically, he realized that everyone is burdened by sin because it happens as a result of our weaknesses. He concluded that man could never earn his salvation by leading a blameless life or by performing holy acts. Instead, man's salvation was a divine gift from God resulting from faith in Jesus, especially the saving power of his death and resurrection. This was known as the protestant doctrine of "justification by faith alone." The fact that Luther believed this, lead him into his first confrontation with the Catholic Church in 1517. All of this influenced Luther to write his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. The leader of the Catholic Church, Pope Leo X, was trying to raise money in order to build St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. To raise money the Pope offered the sale of indulgences. Basically, these were donations of money that would give partial forgiveness for people's sins. So, on October 31, 1517, Luther posted these Ninety-Five Theses or propositions on the door of the Wittenberg Catholic Church. These Ninety-Five Theses denied the right of the Pope to sell indulgences for the forgiveness of sins, among other challenges. His authorship of the Ninety-Five Theses would make Luther the leader of the religious movement or reformation towards Protestantism. Pope Leo X forced Luther to appear before Cardinal Cajetan in Augsburg. Here the Cardinal demanded Luther to take back everything that he said in his Ninety-Five Theses. Luther said that he would if his Theses could be proved wrong by use of the Bible. Later in 1521, Pope Leo X issued a "Bull of Excommunication" towards Luther. Emperor Charles V was expected to enforce the Excommunication. Charles V formed a "diet" in the town of Worms and asked Luther to attend this meeting so that he could be examined. Once again Luther was asked to take back everything that he had said in his Ninety-Five Theses. Luther refused again and was outlawed. Anyone could kill Luther and they would not have been held accountable to the law for punishment. Luther decided that it would be best to relocate under these circumstances. He had a friend that was an elector of Saxony that helped him escape. So, Luther disguised himself and went off to hide in the castle of Wartburg. While he was in Wartburg he began translating the New Testament into German. At that time the emperor was occupied with a war waging in France. This distraction helped Luther return to his work with aid of his followers in Wittenberg. Some of his followers went too far carrying out the

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The 12 Best Creative Writing Colleges and Programs

The 12 Best Creative Writing Colleges and Programs SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Finding a dedicated creative writing program at a school you're excited about can be a real challenge, and that's even before you start worrying about getting in. Nonetheless, there are some great options. In order to help you find the best school for you, this list rounds up some of the best colleges for creative writing in the United States. The Best Creative Writing Programs: Ranking Criteria You should never take college rankings as absolute truth- not even the very official-seeming US News ones. Instead, use these kinds of lists as a jumping-off place for your own exploration of colleges. Pay attention not to just what the rankings are but to how the rankings are determined. To help with that, I'll explain how I came up with this highly unscientific list of great creative writing colleges. I started by narrowing my searchdown to schools that offered a specific creative writing major. (If you don't see a school you were expecting, it's likely because they only have a minor.) // In ranking the schools, I considered five major criteria: #1: MFA Ranking- If a school has a greatgraduate creative writing program, it means you'll be taught bythose same professors and the excellent graduate students they attract. Schools with strong MFA programs are also more likely to have solid alumni networks and internship opportunities. However, many schools with great undergrad programs do not offer MFAs, in which case I simply focused on the other four options. // #2: General School Reputation - The vast majority of your classes won't be in creative writing, so it's important that other parts of the school, especially the English department, are great as well. // #3: Extracurricular Opportunities - One of the key advantages of majoringin creative writing is that it can provide access to writing opportunities outside the classroom, so I took what kind of internship programs, author readings, and literary magazines the school offers into consideration. #4: Diversity of Class Options - I gave extra points to schools with a variety of genre options and specific, interesting classes. // #5: Alumni/Prestige - This last criterion is a bit more subjective: is the school known for turning out good writers? Certainly it's less important than what kind of education you'll actually get, but having a brand-name degree (so to speak) can be helpful. The Best Creative Writing Schools Now, let's get to the good stuff: the list of schools! The exact numbering is always arguable, so look atit as a general trend from absolutely amazing to still super great, rather than fixating on why one school is ranked #3 and another is ranked #4. #1: Northwestern University Northwestern's undergrad creative writing program boasts acclaimed professors and an unparalleled track record of turning out successful writers (including Divergent author VeronicaRoth and short-story writer Karen Russell). Outside the classroom, you can work on the student-run literary journal, intern at a publication in nearby Chicago, or submit to the Department of English's yearly writing competition.The university is also home to a top journalism program, so if you want to try your hand at non-fiction as well, you'll have plenty of opportunities to do so. // #2: Columbia University Like Northwestern, Columbia is home to both a world-class creative writing program and a top journalism school (plus one of the best English departments in the country), so you have a wide range of writing-related course options. Columbia also benefits from its location in New York City, which is bursting at the seams with publishing houses, literary journals, and talented authors. Columbia University's Low Library (Wally Gobetz/Flickr) #3: University of Iowa TheUniversity of Iowa's big draw is the infrastructure of itsgraduate Writers' Workshop, which is often considered the best MFA program in the country. As an English and Creative Writing major here, you'll take classes from great young writers and established professors alike, and get to choose from a wide range of topics. This major provides transferable skills important for a liberal arts major with a creative focus.You'll also have access to the university's impressive literary community, including frequent readings, writing prizes and scholarships, and the acclaimed literary journal The Iowa Review. #4: EmoryUniversity Emory is renowned for its dedicated undergrad creative writing program, which draws the very best visiting scholars and writers. Students herehave the chance to attend intimate question-and-answer session with award-winning authors, study a range of genres, compete for writing awards and scholarships, and work closely with an adviser to complete an honors project. #5: Oberlin College A small liberal arts school in Ohio, Oberlin offers very different advantages than the schools above do. You'll have fewer opportunities to pursue writing in the surrounding city, but the quality of the teachers and the range of courses might make up for that. Moreover, it boasts just asimpressive alumni, including actress and writer Lena Dunham. // #6: Hamilton College Hamilton is another small college, located in upstate New York. It's known for giving students the freedom to pursue their interests and the support to help them explore topics in real depth, both inside and outside the classroom.Hamilton's creative writing program takes full advantage with small classes and lots of opportunities to intern and publish; italso has one of the best writing centers in the country. #7: Brown University Brown's Literary Arts programoffers one of the top MFAs in the US as well as an undergraduate major. For the major, you must take four creative writing workshops andsix reading-intensive courses, which span an array of departments and topics,from music and literature to Middle East studies and Egyptology. Part of Brown University's campus(Chuck Roberts/Flickr) #8: Washington University in St. Louis Washington University has an excellent creative writing MFA program, lots of super specific class options, and a number of scholarships specifically earmarked for creative writing students. #9: Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT might not be a school you generally associate with writing, but it actually has an excellent program that offers courses in digital media and science writing, as well as creative writing, and provides plenty of guidance on how graduates can navigate the tricky job market. Not to mentionthe school is located inCambridge,a haven for book lovers and writers of all kinds.Still, MIT is probably not the best place for you if you hate science of all kinds. #10: University of Michigan University of Michigan is one of the best state universities in the country and has a top-notch MFA program. If you're looking to attend a big school with a great creative writing major, this is a fantastic choice. #11: Johns Hopkins University Johns Hopkins is another school that's known morefor engineering than it is for writing, but, like MIT, it has a dedicated writing program. As a major here, you must take not only courses in prose, poetry, and literature, but also classes on topics such as philosophy and history. #12: Colorado College Colorado College is a small liberal arts school known for its block plan,which allows students to focus on one class per three-and-a-half-week block. The creative writing track of the English major includes a sequence of four writing workshops and also requires students to attend every reading of the VisitingWriters Series. Bonus School: New York University I didn't include NYU in the main list because it doesn't have a dedicated creative writing major, but it's a great school for aspiring writers nonetheless, offeringone of the most impressive creative writing faculties in the country and all the benefits of a Manhattan location. Washington Square Park at NYU How to Pick the Best Creative Writing School for You // Just because Northwestern is a great school for creative writing doesn't mean you should set your heart on going there. (The football fans are completely terrifying, for one thing.) So where should you go then? Here are some questions to ask yourself when looking at creative writing programs to help you determine the best school for you: Does It Have Courses You’re Interested In? Look at the course offerings and see whether they interest you. While you can't predict exactly what classes you'll love, you want toavoid a mismatch where what you want to study and what the program offers are completely different.For example, if you want to writesonnets but the school focuses more on teaching fiction, it probably won't be a great fit for you. Also, don't forget tolook at the English courses and creative writing workshops! In most programs, you’ll be taking a lot of these, too. What Opportunities Are There to Pursue Writing Outside of Class? I touched on this idea in the criteria section, butit's important enough that I want to reiterate it here.Some of the best writing experience you can get is found outside the classroom,so seewhat kind of writing-related extracurricularsa school has before committing to it. Great options include getting involved with the campus newspaper, working on the school’s literary journal, or interning at the university press. Who Will Be Teaching You? Who are the professors? What kind of work have they published? Check teacher ratings on Rate My Professors (but make sure to read the actual reviews- and always take them with a grain of salt). If you’re looking at a big school, there’s a good chance that a lot of your teachers will be graduate students. But that’s not necessarily a bad thing: a lot of the best teachers I had in college were graduate students.Just take into consideration what kind of graduate program the school has. If there’s a great creative writing MFA program,then the graduate students are likely to be better writersand more engaged teachers. What Are the Alumni Doing Now? If you have a sense of what you want to do after you graduate, see if any alumni of the program are pursuing that type of career. The stronger the alumni network is, the more connections you'll have when it comes time to get a job. What About the Rest of the School? Don’t pick a school for which you like the creative writing program but dread everything else about it. Most of your time will be spent doing other things, whether hanging out in the dorms, exploring off campus, or fulfilling general education requirements. Many schools require you to apply to the creative writing major, so make doubly sure you'll be happy with your choice even if you aren't accepted to the program. What's Next? Are you sure a creative writing major is the right fit for you?Read our post on the pros and cons of the majorto help you decide what path to take in college. For more general advice about choosing a college,check out our complete guide to finding the right school for you. Some major factors to consider include deciding whether you're interested ina small college or a big university, an in-state or out-of-state institution, and a public or private school. Want to improve your SAT score by 160points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Basic Network Technology, Structure, and Protocols Research Paper - 1

Basic Network Technology, Structure, and Protocols - Research Paper Example Moreover, the Internet is known as the world’s biggest public WAN and it is too a type of network (Mitchell, 2011) and (FREETECHEXAMS, 2011). There are diverse kinds of networking, for example there are WANs (wide area networks) or LANs (local area networks). However, the dissimilarity among these two depends on their coverage. Additionally, networks can as well be dissimilar in their arrangement and design. In addition, there are various other types as well for instance server/client networks and peer-to-peer networks. Moreover, in some scenarios client/server based networks are inclined to be central by means of the majority processes being maintained by the centralized or key system. On the other hand, the Peer-to-peer networks are composed of computers that facilitate the similar processes as well as are able to transmit data and information to each other (FREETECHEXAMS, 2011) and (Mitchell, 2011). The purpose of networks is to offer data sharing and communication services , for this reason there are some established communication standards those are implemented through protocols. In this scenario, the protocols are similar to the policies and regulations for the processes of the network. In addition, a network can use different protocols depending on the situation, for example TCP/IP, the majority widespread protocol established for the communication on internet as well as in small level networks. Moreover, the networks can be classified as wireless or wired networks. In this scenario, the majority of protocols intended for wired networks are as well facilitated and corroborated by wireless networks. Furthermore, wired networks have been established a long time ago as compared to wireless networks. However, with developments in technology wireless networks are improving and turning out to be more widespread and trustworthy (FREETECHEXAMS, 2011) and (Mitchell, 2011). At the present, networks are used everywhere. From our home telephone lines to TV con nection we are surrounded with communication networks. These networks are able to offer us a lot of facilities and services in form of information and data sharing. On the other hand, majority of the people still do not have any knowledge about the network technology and what are the basic skills behind the scene. In this scenario, there is an awful need of educating people about the network technology and teaching people about this technology based system. For this purpose, TV and internet are the prime means of technology based communication. In addition, through these means we communicate with people as well as transfer data and information. Moreover, we can develop a program based on the presentation which can offer a great deal of support regarding information sharing and data distribution at the network level for guiding the people (FREETECHEXAMS, 2011), (Nash, 2000) and (Mitchell, 2011). However, there are some issues associated with each technology. In the same way, the late st network technologies are also experiencing some of the issues those are hindering in the overall progress and possible evolution of the technology. In this scenario, security in case of network environment is taken as one of the prime factors regarding the network technology and communication. Moreover, these issues become more critical in

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Why does Hollywood hates Arabs Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Why does Hollywood hates Arabs - Essay Example We can infer this typical stereotyping from a film â€Å"Reel Bad Arabs† which does not require the audience to have an impression about what Arabs and Muslims are. It resembles the word â€Å"Real Bad Arabs† which the word alone passed a negative judgement about a certain group of people with a distinct culture without even inquiring the essence of Mohammedism. This stereotyping is typical and often feeds and enflames on the prejudice against Muslims and Arabs. It rides on the negative aspect of pathos, or capitalizing on the negative emotional connotation and impression about Arabs to sell as a film by highlighting Arabs and Muslims as bad guys as initially conveyed by the news. This is quite effective because this approach appeals to the basic instinct of people which is fear. Fear is common among people and Hollywood use this to elicit interest among the audience of its films by demonizing the Arabs and Muslims whom fear can feed on. It is only unfortunate that this fear can later turned into loathing because it is human nature to reject and abhor things that its fears. Arabs and Muslims then became as a favorite enemy of Hollywood when its audience subconsciously wants to confront and overcome its fear. It then exalts the virtue of overcoming a challenge at the expense of another group of people who are helpless about their portrayals in the films. Demonizing Arabs does not even have to be logical. The tile â€Å"Reel Bad Arabs† is not even intelligible nor have any shade of logos in it but its producers knew that it does not have to be reasonable or logical in the presentation of its film to have an audience. Hollywood knows that when people’s pathos are awakened, the logos can be overshadowed because the audience are already entertained by capitalizing and feeding on their fears. This fear was even made into humor by Leslie Nielsen in the film â€Å"An American Carol† where Leslie

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Enterprise Resource Planning Systems - Essay Example Although ERP has been the cornerstone of the success stories of most companies from several years, there has not been a unified definition for the term ERP. The absence of a single definition is due to the intrinsic complexity of the motive behind ERP implementation. According to the PC Magazine, "ERP is a concept that aims at utilizing an integrated IT system, which serves all departments within an enterprise" (PC Magazine, 2007). The definition implies that an ERP system is not a custom software, but a packaged software that a company can configure to interface with its own IT systems and business processes (finance, logistics, HR, manufacturing etc). Some of today's leading ERP vendors are SAP, Oracle and Microsoft. Although its implementation has taken various forms, the essential concept of ERP has remained the same. Today ERP has become a worldwide industry standard term for the broad set of activities supported by multi-module application software that helps a manufacturer or other business manage the important parts of its business, including product planning, parts purchasing, maintaining inventories, interacting with suppliers, providing customer service, and tracking orders. ERP can also include application modules for the finance and human resources aspects of a business (EC Council, 2002). ERP is a standaERP Customization: The First Step to Success ERP is a standard software package, and like any other standard software package aimed at automating an anonymous industry; it must be tailored to the specific requirements of the business domain in which it is being used. According to Gartner Group (1997), the scale of Business Process Re-Engineering and customization account for the maximum reasons for ERP implementation failures. Therefore customization of the ERP software is a primary and a critical step in ERP implementation. Two types of tailoring methods can be applied to customize the ERP software to the specific business. Customize the ERP package to suit the business process. Business Process Re-Engineering: Customizing the Business Process to suit the ERP package. In the first scenario, the company buys the off-shelf ERP package, and customizes the software based on the business rules and policies defined by the company. The second scenario is the one that is most commonly applied. In this customization strategy, the company re-engineers its business processes to match the vendor's ERP logic. It is not essential that all the business processes of the company be re-engineered. The company performs BPR on only those business processes that are currently not in tandem with the philosophy of the ERP package. ERP implementation and BPR activities should be closely connected. ERP implementation should involve the analysis of current business processes and the chance of reengineering, rather than designing an application system that makes only the best of bad processes (Scheer & Habermann, 2000). Current ERP Technology Most current ERP software packages are based on 3-Tier Client Server Architecture. The 3 tiers of this architecture are: User Interface: Contains the GUI that receives user input. Business Logic: These are servers

Friday, November 15, 2019

The Liquid Ring Pump

The Liquid Ring Pump The performance of a two-stage liquid ring pump with water as the sealant liquid was investigated under stand-alone conditions. The parameters varied in this experiment were the cooling water flowrate and inlet air volumetric flowrate which affects the sealant water temperature and pumping speed respectively. Pressure and temperature readings were taken to calculate the compression work and efficiency across the liquid ring pump. It was found that efficiency improved at higher cooling water flowrates and lower sealant water flowrates. As the inlet air mass flowrate was increased, it was also observed that the suction pressure, pumping speed, and compression work increased. These trends compare well to similar investigations done in literature. Assumptions made to describe the performance of the LRP were isothermal compression, ideal gas, dry air as inlet gas, and no loss of energy to the surroundings. Energy balance done across the liquid ring pump showed an agreement to literature ( 1) that isothermal compression was found to be more thermodynamically efficient compared to an adiabatic process. Further work can be done by investigating he pumps performance using different sealant liquids, inlet gas moisture content, and in conjunction with reflux/reboiler and reflux/condenser. Problem Statement Morton Labs Inc. has commissioned an independent evaluation of their liquid ring pump rig. They would like a report on the performance of the pump under a wide set of conditions and its suitability to operate with the Reboiler/Condenser and Reflux/Condenser rigs in their plant. Group A3 was required to plan and carry out experiments that can provide data for such evaluation. The evaluation should include mass and energy balance calculations, performance data and an analysis and description of the behaviour of the pump as well as any suitable model. You will have access to their facility and will be shown how to operate the equipment. Introduction The concept of vacuum has long been the subject of interest of philosophers since the times of the Ancient Greeks due to its profound uniqueness and was recreated by physical means with the creation of what can now be described as the first vacuum pump by Otto von Guericke in 1650. (2) Vacuum pumps have been steadily improved and advanced since then but it was not until huge advances in the late 19th and early 20th century paved the path to what would become a vital organ in several industries such as chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. (2) In a typical paper mill for example, vacuum is mainly used to assist the removal of water in wire drainage and pressing sections in addition to several other purposes. (3) For such an industry, liquid ring vacuum pumps are utilized in order to create the vacuum needed for the mentioned processes. (4) In order to produce vacuums in the most efficient manner, the behaviour and performance of liquid ring pumps needs to be studied in order to reduce costs of operation and reduce energy consumption. Several investigations such as those by Powle and Kar (4) and Chilvers and Love (5) on measuring the behaviour of liquid ring pumps have been conducted due to the importance of determining performance. The objective of this set of experiments is to determine the performance of the 2 phase Hicks Hargreaves SLR type liquid ring pump the located on the B-floor of the Morton Laboratory. Performance can be described by varying flow conditions of the sealant water and cooling water supplied to the liquid ring pump and taking pressure and temperature measurements accordingly. This report will start by describing the operation of liquid ring pumps and the technical theory used to describe their performance, followed by the experimental plan and the methodology. The data collected will then be analysed in order to create trends describing the compression work and the isothermal efficiency of the pump in question. The report will be concluded by suggesting possible areas to be further studied in addition to answering the objective of the experiment. Background Liquid Ring Pump (LRP) The liquid ring pump operates as a vacuum pump using liquid as a compressing agent. It consists of a metal cylindrical body containing an impeller and blades set off centre with respect to the central line of the pump. The liquid ring pump must then be partially filled with a liquid which will act as the sealant and results in forming a vacuum. This is illustrated in figure 1A. The sealant liquid can be either water, oil or a solvent, depending on the application of the pump. When the impeller starts to rotate it throws the liquid in the pump against the walls by centrifugal force. This will cause the impeller blades closest to the wall to be completely submerged in the liquid sealant and the impeller blades furthest away from the wall create a void space with the liquid ring. This is because the impeller is set off centre. This void space sealed off by the liquid and the impeller can be seen by looking at figure 1B. As the impeller rotates anti-clockwise from the top to the bottom, the area of void between the impeller and liquid sealant expands. This creates a suction force which draws gaseous fluid into the pump inlet, as the impeller carries on rotating anti-clockwise from the bottom to the top the liquid is forced closer to the impeller compressing the void space and creating a compression force which pushes the gaseous fluid out of the pump outlet along with a little bit of the liquid sealant, this is because the liquid is highly turbulent inside the pump. (6) A two stage liquid ring pump is the same as described above but with two cycles in series; so that the outlet from the first stage is the inlet of the second stage. Typical values of the vacuum pressure in a two stage pump decreases to 25 mmHg from 35mmHg in a single stage pump. This shows it is much more efficient at creating the desired low vacuum which ranges from 22.5mmHg to 750mmHg. (B) (A)Figure 1: Illustration of liquid ring pump operation (7) Liquid ring pumps are commonly used on reflux / condenser and reboiler / condenser systems. One such system is the removal of air from steam surface condensers and other industrial processes. The liquid ring pump would be employed to evacuate air and any non-condensable gases from a condenser; the gas removal is done to eliminate the insulating effect of the gases present which affects the heat transfer between the steam and cooling medium. This greatly improves the efficiency of the heat transfer system and results in a smaller condenser surface area required, therefore saving space and costs of running a larger condenser. Typically for running such systems a two-stage liquid ring pump would be favoured to create a hogging operation. The first stage of the pump is used to evacuate the air from the condenser at very high pressures and then the second stage is used to optimize the efficiency of the pump and reduce the amount of peak power required. (8) Vacuum pumps are important units in plants that are involved in many applications like processing food, plastic processes, medical process that requires, etc. There are three types of vacuum pumps which can be concluded as molecular pumps which use very high speed jet of fluid, positive displacement pumps that enlarge the cavity and seal it off in frequent and entrapment pumps that traps fluid in solids. A liquid ring pump falls under the displacement pumps category, however there difference that distinguishes it from other displacement pumps. This is due to a liquid ring being formed, it creates a high convective heat and mass transfer phenomenon which dissipates the thermal effect of compression and achieves near isothermal behaviour. The effect of instantaneous convective heat and mass transfer is so rapid that the gas outlet temperature is noted to be close to the sealant inlet temperature almost instantaneously. Because of this effect the discharge temperature remains roughly co nstant, and since the volumetric flowrate also remains nearly constant then with high suction pressure the mass discharge can be enhanced. This causes the liquid ring pump to have faster evacuation during start up and faster turnaround during cycling. (1) Liquid ring pumps can use a variety of liquids, water is the most common, and the choice is generally related to the pressure you wish to be operating at. Oil is also commonly used as a liquid sealant, since oil has a very low vapour pressure; it is typically used in air-cooled systems. The liquid ring pump is also ideally suited for solvent recovery such as toluene provided the cooling water keeps the vapour pressure of the sealant down to produce the required vacuum. Ionic fluids also can be used to reduce the pressure from about 70mbar to below 1mbar. (9) Cavitation is considered a major issue that is associated with liquid ring pumps due to the fluid environment creating low pressures. At very low pressure, 35 mmHg, water boils at 31.7 CËÅ ¡. Therefore, it is essential to keep the sealant at low temperatures by supplying a cooling water flowrate to the system. Inertial cavitation is caused when the pressure falls below the vapour pressure and cause bubbles to form. These bubbles then start to collapse due to the high pressure of the surrounding medium as the pump starts to compress. As the bubble is collapsing the pressure and temperature inside rapidly start to increase, the bubble will eventually collapse, and this releases the gas into the surrounding liquid with a violent mechanism where the energy is released in a shock-wave. This can cause a series of craters and holes along the impeller this can reduce efficiency of the pump and can be seen in figure [2]. Figure [2]: Cavitation We can see the region of cavitation caused by the outlet water temperature, absolute suction pressure and air flowrate illustrated in figure [3] below. Figure [3] Figure [3] shows how a pump can operate within a safe region and then be carried into the cavitation region with only an increase in temperature. The graph also shows how the liquid in the pump vaporizes under certain conditions. For our experiment it makes sense to control the safe operation of the pump by supplying a cooling water stream. This will keep the temperature down and out of the cavitation region. It is also easier to control as the air flowrate depends on the rig that the liquid ring pump may be connected up to. And the suction pressure will have local variation within the pump. (10) Orifice meter for determining air flowrates The flowmeter used by the DeltaV software in the control room, was used to provide data on inlet air flowrates into the liquid ring pump and was unfortunately faulty. This meant the real time recordings of air flowrates could not be supplied. Thus, calibration of the orifice meter was necessary to determine the inlet air flowrates. Figure ?: Orifice meterA square-edged orifice with radius taps was used to calibrate the inlet air flowrate into the Liquid ring pump. Pressure tappings attached to mercury manometers were located one pipe diameter upstream and one-half pipe diameter downstream from the orifice plate as shown in Figure ?. Bernoullis equation for incompressible, inviscid flow along a streamline (11) without shaft work: Where is the inlet pressure (upstream pressure in this case), Pa is the outlet pressure (downstream pressure in this case), Pa are the inlet and outlet velocity respectively, m s-1 is the density of the fluid, kg m-3 is the gravity acceleration, m s-2 , are the inlet and outlet elevation respectively, m The continuity equation gives (11) Where and are the inlet and outlet cross-sectional area respectively, m2 The volumetric air flowrate across the orifice plate can be expressed by substituting Eq. (2.2.2) into Eq. (2.2.1) to give Where is the volumetric air flowrate across the orifice plate, m3 s-1 is the coefficient of discharge is the orifice cross-sectional area, m2 is the pipe cross-sectional area, m2 A typical equation relating the discharge coefficient, as a function of ÃŽÂ ² and Reynolds number, Re, was adapted to calibrate the orifice meter With the conditions of and Where is the viscosity of the fluid, Pa.s To calibrate the air flowrate across the orifice plate, the cooling water flowrate was kept constant and the pressure drop across the manometers were taken for 10-70 number of turns on Valve 11.6 for varying cooling water flowrates. From typical values of 0.61-0.65 (12), was used as the initial guess for iterations to take place. After three iterations, the values of between the corresponding iterations differ within an order of 10-6 and at the third iteration were used for calculations in this report. Where did the valve come from? Relate to diagram? 2,5,8,11 what? Figure 2: Calibration of inlet air mass flowrates across orifice plate give similar trend and magnitude for varying cooling water flowrates Figure 2 indicates that the varying cooling water flowrates do not affect the air mass flowrates across the orifice plate. Thus, the inlet air mass flowrates depends only on the number of turns on Valve 11.6. Average inlet air mass flowrates for cooling water at 2, 5, 8, and 11 kg h-1 were used to produce the following equation in Figure 3 which will be the calibration used in this experiment. Figure 3: Calibration of averaged inlet mass air flowrate across orifice plate Assumptions Temperature Factor Figure 4: Double Stage Pump (13) The suction pressure created falls within the range of approximately 106 to 531 torr while the temperature of sealant water used entered the pump at approximately 55 °F. These conditions fall within a region where the gradient of the graph is very gentle and the value of the temperature factor is around 1.0. Therefore, the temperature factor to be applied to the flowrate of sealant water is approximately the same even as inlet pressure changes. Also, even as the cooling water flowrate was changed, the sealant water temperature was observed to remain around 55 °F. The temperature factor to be applied would not be greatly affected by either of the two operating variables, namely the cooling water flowrate and the inlet air mass flowrate which affects the suction pressure. Since the temperature factor is approximately 1.0, it can be assumed that the mass flowrate of sealant water entering the pump and leaving the pump to be the same, making the vaporisation of air negligible. This a ssumption is investigated by performing a mass balance across the pump taking into account vaporisation of air during the compression process. Inlet air It is assumed that the inlet air into the Liquid ring pump contains no moisture, thus we refer to the inlet air as dry air. The heat exchanger is assumed to have 100% efficiency in heat transfer between the pump, sealant water, and cooling water streams. Assuming no heat loss to the surroundings, the compression work done by the pump is equal to the heat gained by the cooling water in the heat exchanger. For the purpose of calculating efficiency of the Liquid ring pump for this experiment, it is found to be more to calculate compression work from the cooling water heat gain. Steady State Vapour pressure Vapour pressure refers to the pressure in the gas phase when the liquid and gas phase of a system are in equilibrium. The vapour pressure of the sealant liquid into the Liquid ring pump plays an important role in determining the pump capacity. At higher temperatures of sealant liquid, the vapour pressure increases and more vaporisation occurs, causing a lower flowrate of air into the pump which results in low pump capacity. Although it might seem that maximum cooling of the sealant water might be a good idea, care must be taken that the sealant water temperature do not fall so low that cavitation might occur in the Liquid ring pump. [more on cavitation in limitations section] In this experiment, the temperature of the sealant liquid is varied by changing the cooling water flowrates. The relationship between vapour pressure and pump capacity is investigated. From Antoines equation, the vapour pressure of a liquid within a range of temperature can be determined (14) Where T is the temperature, K is the saturation vapour pressure, mmHg are constants for specific materials. For an air-water system, the standard Antoine coefficients are A=8.05573, B=1723.64, C=233.076  °C, valid between temperatures of 0.01  °C and 373.98  °C. (15) A relationship between the vapour pressure and temperature can be obtained from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation (16) Where T1 and T2 are temperatures at condition state 1 and state 2 respectively, K and are vapour pressures at T1 and T2 respectively, Pa is the heat of vaporisation, kJ/kg Isothermal System work done across T2 to T4 equals T7 to T6 T4,6,7? The compression process of a liquid ring pump can be approximated to an isothermal operation at inlet sealant water temperatures. (1) During compression, mechanical energy is converted to compression work and dissipated as thermal energy. The liquid ring formed in the pump provides high heat convection and mass transfer which dissipates the thermal energy, creating a near-isothermal operation. This phenomenon occurs in such a short time scale that the system reaches equilibrium rapidly, and the outlet gas temperature approximates the inlet sealant liquid temperature. Mallick (1) describes this as an achievement of highest degree of thermodynamic efficiency of compression. [Need temperatures to prove this] Compression work From the First Law of Thermodynamics, isothermal compression work of an ideal gas can be expressed by (16) Where W is work, J P is absolute pressure, Pa V is total volume of the system, m3 Assuming ideal gas behaviour applies (verify this!), Where m is mass, kg V1 is the inlet volume, m3 V2 is the outlet volume, m3 R is the gas constant, Pa m3 kg-1 K-1 T is the temperature, K For an isothermal system (17) PV = constant Where Wc is the compression work, J Equation ? is divided by time t, to express the compression work, Substituting = m/t = à Ã‚  Where is the mass flowrate, kg s-1 t is time, s And equation ? in equation ?, the compression work of a vacuum pump at any pressure P, for an isothermal system can be derived to be (4): Where is the pumping speed of the liquid ring pump is the theoretical power consumed for an isothermal process, kW Pump efficiency The efficiency of the liquid ring pump is a vital factor in deciding the suitability of the pump for its purpose. Through experimental investigation, we varied cooling water flow rate and air mass flow rate to determine the condition where the liquid ring pump is the most efficient. From theory, we have assumed an isothermal operating condition which leads us to calculating the efficiency, of the pump as: Where Wiso,c is defined as the compression work done under isothermal conditions Wactual,c is defined as the enthalpy gain and Wactual,c = m Cp ΆT. Units? m is the sealant water mass flowrate, units? Cp is the specific heat capacity of the sealant water (4.912 KJ/Kg.K) ΆT is the measured difference in discharge and suction temperatures in which our case will be (T6 -T7) (18) Where have they come from? Figure 5: Title (19) 3.0 Mass and energy balance 3.1 Mass balance During compression in the liquid ring pump, mechanical work is converted to thermal energy and dissipated, potentially vaporising the sealant water used for compression. Assuming the inlet air is dry air with no water content, the mass balance across the LRP is: Mass balance on the gas component Assuming This can be rearranged to give Where is the humidity ratio obtained from the psychometric chart for the air-water system at standard atmospheric pressure (20). By determining the relative humidity, RH, the value of HR at any temperature can be determined from the psychometric chart. Where is the vapour pressure which can be determined by Eq. ? (Antoine), Pa is the saturation vapour pressure, Pa Mass balance on the liquid component 3.2 Energy balance Total energy balance of a unit mass of fluid is given by (14) Where are internal energy at the inlet and outlet respectively, J is the gravitational acceleration, m s-2 z1 and z2 are the elevation at inlet and outlet respectively, m and are the velocities at inlet and outlet respectively, m s-1 q Heat absorbed from the surroundings units? Ws work done by the fluid on the surroundings units? Assumptions made for the energy balance across the pump: since the system is operating horizontally with no elevation between inlet and outlet Kinetic energy is assumed to be negligible since it is insignificant compared to enthalpy change. Negligible heat loss from the system, . This assumes an adiabatic process. Substituting the relation And Where h is the specific enthalpy, kJ kg-1 The energy balance equation reduces to Which is Where and are the inlet and outlet mass flowrates respectively, kg s-1 and are inlet and outlet specific enthalpy respectively, kJ kg-1 Methodology Apparatus Figure 6: Process Flow Diagram of Experimental Set-up Liquid Ring Pump Sealant Water Tank Scrubber Thermocouples Mercury Manometers Rotameter Orifice Plate DeltaV system Experimental design Firstly, we identified two operating variables that could be varied to investigate the performance of the pump. The two variables are the inlet air flowrate and the storage tank cooling water flowrate. The inlet air flowrate could be manipulated by a flow control valve over a range of 8 to 70 turns. By calculating the pressure drop across an orifice plate and plotting a calibration curve, we were able to get the mass flowrate associated with the number of turns on the valve. The storage tank cooling water could be manipulated over a range of 0.5 to 12.5 m3h-1. The adjacent flowmeter gives a measurement of the cooling water flowrate into the heat exchanger around the sealant water storage tank. A full set of measurements were taken to obtain pressure, flowrate and temperature data as we changed the operating variables. Pressure data was obtained for the pressure drop across the orifice plate, and the suction, interstage and outlet pressures for the pump through mercury manometers. Flowrate data was taken from a rotameter that measured the volumetric flowrate of the sealant water. Temperature data was extracted by the DeltaV logging software in the control room. Experimental Procedure The following procedure was conducted over two experimental runs. Through repeating the procedure, we were able to test the reproducibility of our results and reduce the effect of random errors on our results. Set and maintain cooling water flowrate at 2m3hr-1. Starting with the maximum air flowrate at 70 turns we waited for steady state to be achieved before taking the manometer readings for suction, interstage, outlet, orifice plate and rotameter readings for the sealant water flowrate. The air flowrate was then decreased to 60 turns followed by 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10 turns, all the while ensuring that steady state is reached before taking the readings. The full range of measurements from 70 to 10 turns for the inlet air flowrate was similarly taken at cooling water flowrates of 5, 8 and 11m3hr-1. Limitations In determining if the system is at steady state, the flowrate readings that can be monitored from the control room will provide good indication once the rate stabilises. However, the range of the flowmeter is limited beyond 119m3/hr (between 40 and 50 turns on V11.6). Therefore, the mercury manometer that reads the pressure drop across the orifice plate should be used to determine steady state after 40 turns on V11.6. A calibration curve will be plotted to relate the inlet air flowrate and the pressure drop across the orifice plate for mass flow calculations. Also, the flowmeter was faulty on our second run which meant that we would have to solely depend on our calibration curve to determine the inlet air mass flowrate at any number of turns. Analysis of results In the investigation of the performance of the two stage liquid ring pump, we ran the pump under different operating conditions by varying two variables; the air mass flowrates into the pump and cooling water flowrates. Pressures of the suction, interstage and outlet of the pump were measured and used to evaluate the pumps performance at different conditions, hence determining the efficiency of the pump. As the behaviour of inlet air mass flowrate, sealant water flowrate, suction pressure, compression work and pumping speed showed almost identical trends for different cooling water flowrates, an average of the four measurements were used. Sealant Liquid The sealant liquid used in the experiment is water and the compressed fluid is air. Before starting the run, the pump is filled with a specific level of water to ensure that there is sufficient sealant liquid to create vacuum. As the sealant fluid shares the same space in the pump as the fluid to be compressed, it would be expected that as the flowrate of the latter is increased, the flowrate of the sealant liquid decreases. Figure 7: Average Sealant Water Flowrate vs Inlet Air Mass Flowrate From figure 7, it can be seen that as the inlet air mass flowrate increases, the sealant water flowrate into the pump decreases. This is in line with the expected trend since the compressed air occupies a much greater volume in the pump at higher air mass flowrates. Suction Pressure Vacuum is created by the liquid ring pump due to the pressure difference between the source and the pump inlet. In the experiment, the source is air at atmospheric pressure and the inlet pressure is the suction pressure created by the pump. A low suction pressure would translate to a big pressure difference, creating vacuum. (21) Figure 8: The average inlet air mass flowrate for varying cooling water flowrates was plotted against suction pressure Figure 8: shows the trend we obtained where suction pressure increases as inlet air flowrate is increased. This shows that at lower air flowrates, more vacuum is created at a low suction pressure. As the air flowrate is increased, the ability to create vacuum decreases resulting in a higher vacuum pressure. Figure 9: The relationship between dry air capacity and suction pressure at a temperature of 20  °C obtained from literature. (22) As it is assumed that dry air is used and that its density remains constant throughout, the experimental results in Figure 8 can be compared to results obtained from literature in Figure 9. A similar trend is observed where there is the suction pressure is greater as the dry air capacity increases. Figure 10: Table categorising the degree of vacuum according to the absolute pressure of operation. (23) This experiment operates within a range of suction pressures which averages to approximately (1.41-6.00) x104 Pa abs. From figure 10, the range categorises the liquid ring pump as one that creates low vacuum. Low vacuum is sufficient in many industrial applications such as distillation in the petrochemical industry which keeps the liquid ring pump as a relevant piece of plant equipment. Compression Work (Sample calculations for a cooling water flowrate of 11 m3h-1 at 30 numbers of turns) shifted to appendix To calculate compression work under isothermal conditions, we can use Equation 3.7.11 Figure 12: shows that greater compression work is done by the pump with increasing suction pressure. From figure 12(above), it can be seen that greater compression work is done with increasing suction pressure. Based on the inlet air mass flowrate that we used, the suction pressure we created with the pump ranges from ~106 to 531 torr. The graph of the suction pressure against compression work shows a similar trend to literature values shown below in figure 11(below) for the same range. Figure 11: Effect of suction pressure compression work (4) Removed figure 13 Effect of Inlet Pressure on Pumping Speed Figure 15: Pumping Speed at different temperatures of sealant liquid (4) It can be seen from the graph Figure 15 that the change in pumping speed gradually becomes smaller. The inlet pressure (suction pressure) that we obtained from varying the inlet air mass flowrate falls within the range of around 106 to 531 torr. Therefore, we should obtain the same trend of pumping speed with increasing inlet pressure. Figure 16: Pumping speed changes with increasing suction pressure Replaced the graph with a newer one showing the right denotation for units on the y axis Figure 16 shows that the experimental results obtained agree with results obtained from literature. With increasing inlet pressure, the pumping speed increases while the gradient of the graph decreases. 5.5 Efficiency Figure 17: Plot of Isothermal Efficiency Vs Sealant Water Mass Flowrate Figure 17 shows that isothermal efficiency decreases with increasing sealent water flowrate. This result agrees with theory as we know from theory, the efficiency of the pump is affected by the vacuum capacity, and with an increase in sealent water flowrate, more vapour will be formed from the increased amount of sealent water forming the ring-liquid when the vacuum pressure approaches the vapour pressure of the sealent liquid. The increase in vapour volume released from the increase in sealent water will decrease the vacuum capacity and therefore reducing efficiency. Figure18: Plot of Efficiency Vs Cooling Water Flowrate Figure 18 shows that a higher cooling water flowrate will result in higher efficiency. The above trend is derived from the isothermal efficiency of the system at a fixed sealant water flowrate of 0.27 kg s-1. The cooling water flowrate is related to the enthalpy gain of the sealant water and consequently the isothermal efficiency. A higher flowrate would mean that the enthalpy gain is lower and that isothermal efficiency is higher which can be seen from equation 2.8.1. From the above results we can therefore conclude that the liquid ring pump is most efficient at the highest cooling water flowrate and a sealant water flowrate of 0.27 kg s-1 which translates to air flowrate at 60 turns flowing into the pump. Remove